Anal streptococcal anitis is a clinically well-defined entity. However, poorly understood, its diagnosis is often made late, exposing the child to the usual complications of streptococcal infections .
We report a case of female newborn baby, from a 20 year old mother, with positive culture of vaginal Group B streptococcus, addressed for acute fetal distress, the delivery was done by c-section, giving birth to a newborn baby weighing 2.460 kg.
The newborn was admitted to our unit for management of respiratory distress 3/10 according to Silverman score and its probable major infectious risk.
The evolution was favorable under an adapted respiratory support, the blood culture and the CRP done at H24 of life were negatives; However the patient presented fever on day 3 of hospitalization, the clinical examination revealed red and painful perianal erythema, responsible for reflex constipation (Figure 1).
The diagnosis of streptococcal anitis was suggested and confirmed by the presence in local samples of group B beta-hemolytic streptococcus. The outcome was favorable under treatment with Ampicillin.
Recognition of the clinical onset of streptococcal anitis should allow easy and early diagnosis. The implementation of an appropriate antibiotic treatment allows both rapid healing and limits the risk of secondary morbidity.
Keywords: Anitis; Streptococcal infection; Neonatal sepsis